"We identified significant reduction in left white matter volume
and white/gray matter ratio
in autism. Regional brain volume reductions
were detected for right anterior cingulate, left superior parietal lobule white matter volumes,
and right parahippocampal gyrus gray matter volume,
whereas enlargements in bilateral supramarginal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus,
right medial frontal gyrus, and right posterior lobe of cerebellum gray matter in autism."
"The combination of enlarged cortex and reduced white matter
is possibly the structural basis
of some symptoms of classic autism."
"The low-functioning autism group had a prominent shape abnormality
centered on the pars opercularis
of the inferior frontal gyrus that was associated with a sulcal depth difference in the anterior insula
and frontal operculum
. The high-functioning autism group had bilateral shape abnormalities similar to the
low-functioning group, but smaller in size and centered more posteriorly, in and near the parietal
operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus."
"Recently, studies have provided evidence of neuroglial responses and neuroinflammation
"Our results demonstrate altered expressions of the PDE4A and PDE4B proteins
in the brains
of subjects with autism..."
"These results are in agreement with the hypothesis of impairment of the mirror neuron system
in autistic disorder."